While browsing the internet, you've probably heard terms like "data mining" and "machine learning," but never could find a concise definition to help you understand what you were reading. Now? You don't have to look far. Below are brief definitions of words and phrases related to AI.
Note: not all letters of the alphabet are listed if they do not contain relevant enough terms.
AI terms A through E
AGI, ANI, ANN, CNN...what do they all mean?
Algorithm: a formula given to a computer in order for it to complete a task (i.e. a set of rules for a computer)
Artificial intelligence: a subset of computer science that deals with computer systems performing tasks with similar, equal, or superior intelligence to that of a human (e.g. decision-making, object classification and detection, speech recognition and translation)
Artificial general intelligence (AGI): also known as strong AI, AGI is a type of artificial intelligence that is considered human-like, and still in its preliminary stages (more of a hypothetical existence in present day)
Artificial narrow intelligence (ANI): also known as weak AI, ANI is a type of artificial intelligence that can only focus on one task or problem at a given time (e.g. playing a game against a human competitor). This is the current existing form of AI.
Artificial neural network (ANN): a network modeled after the human brain by creating an artificial neural system via a pattern-recognizing computer algorithm that learns from, interprets, and classifies sensory data
Backpropagation: shorthand for “backward propagation of errors,” is a method of training neural networks where the system’s initial output is compared to the desired output, then adjusted until the difference (between outputs) becomes minimal
Bayesian networks: also known as Bayes network, Bayes model, belief network, and decision network, is a graph-based model representing a set of variables and their dependencies
Big data: large amounts of structured and unstructured data that is too complex to be handled by standard data-processing software
Chatbots: a chat robot that can converse with a human user through text or voice commands. Utilized by e-commerce, education, health, and business industries for ease of communication and to answer user questions.
Image courtesy of IBM
Classification: algorithm technique that allows machines to assign categories to data points
Clustering: algorithm technique that allows machines to group similar data into larger data categories
Cognitive computing: computerized model that mimics human thought processes by data mining, NLP, and pattern recognition
Computer vision: when a machine processes visual input from image files (JPEGs) or camera feeds
Convolutional neural network (CNN): a type of neural network specifically created for analyzing, classifying, and clustering visual imagery by using multilayer perceptrons
Data mining: the process of sorting through large sets of data in order to identify recurring patterns while establishing problem-solving relationships
Deep learning: a machine learning technique that teaches computers how to learn by rote (i.e. machines mimic learning as a human mind would, by using classification techniques)
Digital ecosystem: several software platforms or cloud services that work in tandem across a network
AI terms F through J
This section should be of particular interest if you enjoy experimental AI!
Generative adversarial networks (GAN): a type of neural network that can generate seemingly authentic photographs on a superficial scale to human eyes. GAN-generated images take elements of photographic data and shape them into realistic-looking images of people, animals, and places.
GIF courtesy of Medium.com
Genetic algorithm: an algorithm based on principles of genetics that is used to efficiently and quickly find solutions to difficult problems
Heuristic: a computer science technique designed for quick, optimal, solution-based problem solving
Image recognition: the process of identifying or detecting an object or feature of an object in an image or video
AI terms K through O
Some of the most used terms lie between K-O in the AI glossary!
Limited memory: systems with short-term memory limited to a given timeframe
Machine learning (ML): focuses on developing programs that access and use data on their own, leading machines to learn for themselves and improve from learned experiences
Machine translation: an application of NLP used for language translation (human-to-human) in text- and speech-based conversations
Supervised learning: a type of machine learning where output datasets teach machines to generate desired outcomes or algorithms (akin to a teacher-student relationship)
Transfer learning: a system that uses previously-learned data and applies it to a new set of tasks
Turing Test: a test created by computer scientist Alan Turing (1950) to see if machines could exhibit intelligence equal to or indistinguishable from that of a human
AI terms U through Z
Fewer AI terms fall between U-Z, but the most important ones are here on display.
Unstructured data: data without easily searchable patterns (e.g. audio, video, social media content)
Unsupervised learning: a type of machine learning where an algorithm is trained with information that is neither classified nor labeled, thus allowing the algorithm to act without guidance (or supervision)
Weak AI: see artificial narrow intelligence (ANI)
On the road to expertise
With these frequently-searched terms fresh in your mind, you’re ready to tackle AI head-on and continue your knowledge exploration adventure! While you're at it, take a look at today's best artificial intelligence software around!
Rebecca Reynoso is the Content Editor at G2. Her passion for writing led her to study English, receiving a BA and MA from UIC and DePaul, respectively. In her free time, she enjoys watching/attending Blackhawks games as well as spending time with her family and cat. (she/her/hers)